22 Certitude Annual Review 2017 Income and Expenditure for 2016/17 Despite the challenging social care environment, the group is in a positive position with a surplus for the year of £951k before investment gains and £1.333m after investment gains. This surplus allows the organisation to continue to invest in service improvements and developments. We have achieved this strong position by making efficiency improvements in areas which do not directly impact people we support and used economies of scale to streamline our services and to maximise the outcome for each pound spent. Total turnover is £31.490m (£27.391m in 2015/16), the increase is primarily as a result of the full year effect of new contracts awarded in 2015/16 as well as new services opened in 2016/17. Total expenditure was £30.539m (£27.845m in 2015/16) due to new contracts and service improvements and developments. Staff costs represent 76.8% of turnover and considerable efforts were made during the year to ensure we manage all our costs as effectively as possible. We had overall investment gains (less actuarial losses) of £0.382m. This strong financial position means we are able to continue to further develop and improve services for people and families we support.